Only the results of first BAL procedures performed during the study period were included in the analysis to ensure the independence of observations. Results were expressed as the mean ± SD. Univariate comparisons between cases (patients with AH) and controls (control subjects without AH) were performed with the Wald test by using nonconditional logistic regression for computing odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). A value of 0.5 was used as for 0 in any cell for computing the 95% CI. Then, factors associated with AH (p < 0.1) in univariate analysis were entered into a stepwise forward logistic regression model to determine which of them were significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of AH (p < 0.05; two-sided test). Finally, the survival rate 12 months after the BAL procedure was compared between patients and control subjects by using a log rank test. Data were processed with computer software (StatView and Survival Tools F-4.11; Abacus Concepts; Berkeley, CA). canadian pharmacy cialis generic
Frequency, Severity, and Clinical Features of HIV-Related AH
Two hundred seventy-three consecutive BAL procedures were performed in 243 patients during the 3-year study period. Eighty-eight samples (32%) revealed AH (mean GS, 65; GS range, 20 to 221). AH was severe (GS > 100) in 11 of the 88 patients (13%). As expected, there was a good correlation between the GS and the percentage of siderophages recovered by BAL in cases of AH (R2 = 0.9; p < 0.01; data not shown). Total and differential cell counts did not differ between BAL fluid from patients with AH and those without AH (data not shown).
Data corresponding to the first BAL procedures undergone by the 203 patients treated and followed in our institution then were analyzed. In this group, the frequency and severity of AH were not different from those of the total sample (n = 273). AH was detected in 73 of these 203 samples (36%) (mean GS, 54.5; range, 20 to 201) and was severe in six patients (8%). The 12-month cumulative patient survival rates were 76% and 80%, respectively, in the patients and control subjects (not significant), indicating that AH did not affect the survival of these patients.
Only one patient (1.4%) with AH had hemoptysis. The mean hemoglobin and Pa02/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio values were 10.5 ± 2.5 g/dL and 316.3 ± 73.2, respectively, and did not differ between the patients and control subjects. Chest radiograph findings were never normal in patients with AH and were normal in 27 of the 130 patients (21%) without AH. Eight patients with AH (10.4%) and no patients without AH had grossly bloody BAL fluid,
AIDS-Related Alveolar Hemorrhage: Results