Archive for the ‘Droplets’ Category

Droplets Produced by Medical Nebulizers: Discussion (Part 5)

The Flatus compressor produces a droplet size similar to the Aerosol-One, with the Up-Draft nebulizer, but with the higher flow rate of the Flatus, a smaller droplet size may be expected. The discrepancy may be due to the fact that the Aerosol-One droplets are evaporating to a greater extent than with the Flatus at ambient […]

Droplets Produced by Medical Nebulizers: Discussion (Part 4)

Schoeffel et al found that small amounts of hypertonic (3.6 percent sodium chloride) aerosol caused bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. Lewis and Tattersfield found that a number of asthmatic subjects had bronchoconstriction after inhaling a jet nebulized aerosol of isotonic saline solution, but not to an aerosol generated by a nebulizer heated to 37°C. This was […]

Droplets Produced by Medical Nebulizers: Discussion (Part 3)

The nebulizer solution equilibrates to a lower steady temperature Ts when the dry gas from a compressed gas cylinder is used to generate the aerosol, compared with the air compressors. The droplet solute concentration thus increases to a greater extent (relative to the value at ambient temperature) as a result (Table 3).

Droplets Produced by Medical Nebulizers: Discussion (Part 2)

As the temperature of the ultrasonic nebulizer solution increases, the extra water needed to saturate the air is likely to come from the dense aerosol cloud within the nebulizer chamber. The output therefore is not likely to change as the nebulizer temperature rises as suggested by the results (Fig 4). The two-way valve situated before the […]

Droplets Produced by Medical Nebulizers: Discussion (Part 1)

The fact that the nebulizer solution temperature of jet nebulizers falls during generation has been well documented. The heat loss is due to the evaporation of the nebulizer solution to saturate the gas used to generate the aerosol and some cooling due to adiabatic expansion of the generating gas. This evaporation also leads to an increase […]

Droplets Produced by Medical Nebulizers: Results (Part 3)

The effect of dilution air humidity alone on the droplet solute concentration with the nebulizer at room temperature for each jet nebulizer system can be seen in Table 1. ventolin inhalers The droplet solute concentration reaches 1.1 to 1.5 percent with saturated dilution air at ambient temperature. Ambient dilution air with relative humidity of 65 […]

Droplets Produced by Medical Nebulizers: Results (Part 2)

The ultrasonic nebulizer solution output is much larger than that of the jet nebulizers. The output vs time graph is shown in Figure 4. The output without tubing or valve was found to be approximately constant at 4.8 ml/min over the time period tested. The output through the two-way valve was found to be greatly […]

Droplets Produced by Medical Nebulizers: Results (Part 1)

The fall in temperature with time of nebulization for each of the nebulizer-generator systems is shown in Figure 1. For the jet nebulizers, the temperature falls to a steady value Ts which is 5 to 6°C below the ambient temperature at the lower flow rates of the air compressors, and 11 to 15°C at 8 […]

Droplets Produced by Medical Nebulizers: Methods (Part 3)

After collection of the aerosol droplets, the containers were re-weighed and droplets diluted with normal saline solution if their volume was insufficient for the determination of their solute concentration vapor pressure osmometry (model 1100, Knauer, Bad Homberg, West Germany). The solute concentration of the aerosol droplets generated by the Mist-Oz-Gen nebulizer was measured by the previously […]

Droplets Produced by Medical Nebulizers: Methods (Part 2)

The concentration of sodium chloride in the aerosol droplets generated by the jet nebulizers was measured for different, constant, nebulizer solution temperatures. The lowest temperature used for each nebulizer was approximately the value reached after running the nebulizer without heating to a steady temperature Ts, determined as described previously. The nebulizer bowl, containing 5 ml […]

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