Clinical Spectrum of Mediastinal Cysts

Clinical Spectrum of Mediastinal CystsCysts of the mediastinum, which are benign masses, constitute a small but important diagnostic group, representing 12 to 18% of all primary mediastinal tumors; however, the individual physician has little chance to know the clinical characteristics and total disease entities because of their relative rarity. There are few reports that review the entire range of mediastinal cysts. The classification of mediastinal cysts is based on their etiology, encompassing bronchogenic, esophageal duplication cysts of foregut origin, mesothelial derived pericardial/pleural cysts, thymic cysts, and other miscellaneous cysts.

Foregut cysts are believed to result from abnormal budding or division of the primitive fore-gut, a very similar embryogenesis to congenital cystic lesions of the lung parenchyma.- In a broad sense, these disease entities are categorized into bronchopulmonary foregut malformations, such as pulmonary sequestration, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, congenital lobar emphysema, and bronchogenic pulmonary cysts. Neuroenteric cysts may develop by abnormal septation of the embryo-genic germ cell layer, which closely associate with the vertebral column. In addition, mesothelial cysts, including pericardial and pleural cysts, and thymic cysts also occur in the mediastinum, as well as other rare cysts. This report is a retrospective study from a single Japanese institution reviewing the clinical characteristics and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for the entire spectrum of cystic lesions of the mediastinum.
Materials and Methods
A retrospective review of the medical records of patients with mediastinal cysts treated at Osaka University Hospital between 1951 and 2000 was performed. Complete records were available in all patients with mediastinal cysts. x2 testing was utilized for categorical values.

Category: Cysts

Tags: bronchogenic cysts, foregut cysts, Japanese experience, mediastinal cysts, mesothelial cysts, symptomatology