Droplets Produced by Medical Nebulizers
Nebulized aerosols are used extensively in therapy and diagnosis of respiratory diseases. This mode of administration also has proven useful in ventilation imaging as an aid in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. In fact, it is the ease with which solutions or suspensions of therapeutic and diagnostic agents can be nebulized which makes the use of this type of aerosol so widespread.
The importance of the characterization of nebulizer systems for clinical applications has been recognized by a number of authors. The clinical efficacy of nebulized aerosol treatment depends primarily on the amount of active substance depositing at various sites in the respiratory tract, which in turn is dependent on the droplet size and output from the nebulizer as well as patient parameters such as inspiratory flow rate, respiratory tract morphology and disease state of the lungs. The wide variation in performance of nebulizer delivery systems makes it likely that a failure in therapy often may be explained by poor aerosol delivery rather than by a poor response to the drug therapy. buy ampicillin
It is well known that the nebulizer solution cools and concentrates during nebulization, and it has been reported that the humidity of the air inhaled along with the aerosol affects droplet characteristics. We wished to look directly at the effects of nebulizer cooling and dilution air humidity on (a) the size and (b) the concentration of solutes in the aerosol droplets generated by a number of different medical nebulizer systems.