Thus, roundness could be assumed. Briefly, the area and volume of an individual LC were approximated by taking the average of the longest and shortest diameter, dividing it in half to yield the average radius, and then applying the calculations for area (A = п X radius2) and volume (V = 4/3[ п X radius3]). The LC volume density was calculated as the percentage of testis profile area that was LC area, and the total volume of LC per testis was estimated as the LC volume density X testis volume. The absolute number of LC per testis was estimated by dividing the total volume of LC per testis by the average volume of an individual LC.
For all end points, the litter means were analyzed by ANOVA with PROC GLM (SAS, version 8; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC); the numbers of litters represented are provided in the figure legends. Where statistically significant (P < 0.05) effects were seen with the overall ANOVA model, these results were compared with the least-square means (LSMEANS: a two-tailed /-test) of treatment groups to determine significant differences (P < 0.05) between treatments. Data on anogenital distance, preputial separation, and reproductive organ weights were analyzed with body weight as a covariate. Unless stated otherwise, only statistically significant (P < 0.05) effects are discussed in the following section.