Individualized Aerobic and High Intensity Training for Asthmatic Children (2)

Material and Methods
Subjects
This study was carried out with 14 atopic asthmatic children, during a six-month period. All the asthmatic subjects were known to have had recurrent reversible wheezing episodes and were required to fulfill at least three of the four following criteria: (1) clinical: family history of asthma and/or personal history of eczema, conjunctivitis or rhinitis caused by a known allergen; (2) allergic: all the children presented a cutaneous hypersensitivity to one or several allergens; (3) immunologic: blood IgE levels were determined by the paper radioimmunoabsorbent test (PRIST): any values above 150 Ul/ml were considered abnormal; and (4) functional: improvement of 15 percent, at least, in FEV, by inhaling a bronchodilator.
The children were divided into two groups: control subjects (n = 7) and swimmers (n = 7). The two groups showed no significant differences concerning age, height, weight, lean body mass, airflows, regular physical practice, frequency of acute attack of asthma, and initial cardiorespiratory fitness. All patients were asymptomatic before testing.
Basal medication (disodium cromoglycate, sympaticomimetics, and exceptionally, steroids) was not modified but was withdrawn at least 24 hours before each test.
The anthropometric characteristics and the spirometric values of the asthmatic children are given in Tables 1 and 2. The patients took part in the study after informed consent was obtained from them and their parents.

Table 1—Anthropometric Characteristics of the Control Group and the Stcimmmg Group Before Physical Training

No. Age, yrs Sex Height, cm Weight, kg Lean body mass, kg
Control group
1 12 M 163 48 39.48
2 10 M 140 33 28.71
3 9 M 116 22 19.65
4 12 F 147 49 35.09
5 11 M 144 33 30.14
6 13 M 157 44 37.84
7 13 M 161 58 45.88
Mean ± SEM 11.4± 1.5 146.8 ±16.1 41 ±12.2 33.8 ±8.5
Swimming group
1 13 F 148 47 39.94
2 13 M 142 33 30.31
3 9 M 141 33 30.06
4 11 M 135 27 25.01
5 9 M 141 33 29.16
6 13 M 142 38 32.92
7 12 M 140 28 25.82
Mean ± SEM 11.4± 1.8 141.2±3.8 34.1±6.7 30.4 ±4.9
Difference between groups* NS NS NS NS

Table 2—Spirometric Values of the Control Group and the Swimming Group Before Physical Training

No. FVC FEV, FEVj/FVC MEF50 FEF25-75 FEF25-75/FVC
Control group
1 112 (3.25) 103 (2.63) 81 74 (2.97) 73 (2.55) 78
2 107 (2.29) 104 (1.91) 83 74 (2.23) 75 (1.92) 83
3 107 (1.37) 102 (1.08) 78 63 (1.12) 65 (1.11) 81
4 88 (1.83) 91 (1.64) 89 75 (2.42) 83 (2.19) 119
5 102 (2.34) 93 (1.83) 78 63 (2.05) 62 (1.67) 72
6 92 (2.74) 79 (2.02) 73 61 (2.42) 49 (1.72) 63
7 86 (2.79) 69 (1.91) 68 40 (1.67) 38 (1.41) 50
Mean 99 (2.37) 92 (1.86) 79 64 (2.13) 63 (1.8) 78
SEM 4 (0.23) 5 (0.17) 2 5 (0.22) 6 (0.18) 8
Swimming group
1 104 (3.16) 86 (2.26) 72 53 (2.04) 48 (1.72) 54
2 94 (2.11) 87 (1.69) 80 64 (2.04) 66 (1.77) 84
3 84 (1.86) 70 (1.33) 72 48 (1.49) 36 (0.95) 51
4 107 (2.12) 72 (1.22) 58 26 (0.74) 32 (0.77) 36
5 105 (2.32) 91 (1.73) 74 59 (1.86) 61 (1.62) 70
6 119 (2.62) 118 (2.24) 85 73 (2.79) 100 (2.64) 100
7 95 (2.03) 70 (1.28) 63 31 (0.93) 30 (0.77) 38
Mean 101 (2.31) 85 (1.68) 72 51 (1.70) 53 (1.46) 62
SEM 4 (0.17) 6 (0.16) 3 6 (0.26) 9 (0.26) 9
NS NS NS NS NS NS

Category: Asthma and Chronic Airflow Limitation

Tags: aerobic training, fitness, high intensity training, swimming