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Assessment of Symptoms and Exercise Capacity in Cyanotic Patients With Congenital Heart Disease: Ventilatory Efficiency and Symptomatology of Patients

Based on the data we obtained, it remains difficult to differentiate whether these eight patients actually did not recruit anaerobic metabolism during exercise or the determination of AT was obscured by alterations in ventilatory pattern and control. Thus, VO2AT values should be carefully interpreted in patients with cyanotic heart disease. An increased VE had been reported for different causes of hypoxemia, eg, for persons living…

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Assessment of Symptoms and Exercise Capacity in Cyanotic Patients With Congenital Heart Disease: Acid-Base Balance and Ventilation

Fig2

As shown in Figure 2, despite large SDs there were marked and significant differences in the Ve/ VC02 ratio and the VE vs VC02 slope in patients with various NYHA and ability classes, while peak V02 did correlate to the symptomatic state to some extent. The results of blood gas analysis are shown in Table 3. At rest, reduced Pa02 and increased VE (Table 2)…

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Assessment of Symptoms and Exercise Capacity in Cyanotic Patients With Congenital Heart Disease: Statistical Analysis

Fig1

During the exercise period, Vo2AT (primarily according to the V-slope method and, if necessary, with further inspection of the Vo2, Vco2, Ve/Vo2, and Peto2 kinetics) and Ve vs Vco2 slope were determined, and at maximal exertion (peak Vo2), Peto2 and Petco2 were assessed. The terminal nonlinear part of the VE vs Vco2 relationship was excluded from the analysis of the VE vs Vco2 slope. Great…

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Assessment of Symptoms and Exercise Capacity in Cyanotic Patients With Congenital Heart Disease: Control Group

Two patients (patient 12/13 and patient 23/24) underwent evaluation twice with an interval of at least 6 months. Both patients were surgically palliated (with significant changes in clinical presentation, extent of cyanosis, and shunt volume) between both evaluations. The remaining patients did not undergo surgical corrections. Individual diagnoses are presented in Table 1. The control group consisted of 101 healthy volunteers aged 16 to 75…

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Assessment of Symptoms and Exercise Capacity in Cyanotic Patients With Congenital Heart Disease

Approximately 1.0% of all children are affected by congenital heart defects. In 1994, it was estimated that > 500,000 patients with significant functional cardiac malformations reach adulthood in the United States. Supplementing echocardiography and cardiac catheterization data with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) offers an objective method to further characterize the limitations of the cardiovascular system in these patients. fully

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Comparative Evaluation of Super High-Resolution CT Scan and Virtual Bronchoscopy for the Detection of Tracheobronchial Malignancies: Conclusion

Fig4

Although SHR-CT scanning and VB presently cannot be utilized for the identification of preneoplastic lesions, these imaging modalities have a tremendous potential for clinical application. SHR-CT scanning and VB are noninvasive. The radiation exposure associated with these scans is comparable if not less than that of conventional CT scans of the chest. SHR-CT scanning and VB provide unique opportunities to assess extraluminal and intraluminal airway…

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Comparative Evaluation of Super High-Resolution CT Scan and Virtual Bronchoscopy for the Detection of Tracheobronchial Malignancies: Discussion

As with SHR-CT scans and VBs, additional obstructive lesions were appreciated by CT scans that were not visualized by FB. Three of six of these obstructive lesions (50%) were confirmed to be positive by histologic evaluation. The locations of these lesions were in the left lower lobe (two lesions) and the right lower lobe (one lesion) [Fig 3, bottom right, F], Rapid technological advances in…

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Comparative Evaluation of Super High-Resolution CT Scan and Virtual Bronchoscopy for the Detection of Tracheobronchial Malignancies: Conventional CT Scanning

On the other hand, SHR-CT scans revealed 10 additional lesions, and VB demonstrated 11 additional lesions that were not evaluable by FB (Fig 3, bottom left, D, and bottom middle, E) due to the size limitation of the bronchoscope (9 cases) or to the location distal to high-grade stenoses (2 cases). Because many patients went on to undergo resection of a lesion for palliation or…

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Comparative Evaluation of Super High-Resolution CT Scan and Virtual Bronchoscopy for the Detection of Tracheobronchial Malignancies: Results

Fig1

Image Acquisition Image acquisition and anatomic simulation of the tracheobronchial tree were successful in all patients, No adverse events were noted in the study group, There were no respiratory or cardiac motion artifacts that precluded image reconstruction, SHR-CT and VB Of the 32 patients who underwent correlative FBs, 9 (28%) had normal examination findings. In all patients with normal anatomy, the results of SHR-CT scans…

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