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Comparative Evaluation of Super High-Resolution CT Scan and Virtual Bronchoscopy for the Detection of Tracheobronchial Malignancies: Statistical Analysis

VB images were converted to 3-D endoscopic views using commercial software (Navigator; General Electric) on a workstation (Advantage Windows; General Electric). The VB was derived from the SHR-CT axial images of the thorax with no further radiation exposure necessary. The radiologist (RMS), who was blinded to the findings of the other modalities, first placed the viewpoint in the proximal trachea. Retrograde inspection of the subglottic…

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Comparative Evaluation of Super High-Resolution CT Scan and Virtual Bronchoscopy for the Detection of Tracheobronchial Malignancies: Procedures

The mean (± SD) age of all patients was 52 ± 12.2 years (median, 53 years; range, 29 to 88 years). Thirty-two patients (73%) were men (mean age, 52 ± 11.3 years; median age, 54 years; age range, 29 to 73 years), 12 patients (27%) were women (mean age, 52 ± 14.8 years; median age, 51 years; age range, 38 to 88 years). Histologic diagnoses…

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Comparative Evaluation of Super High-Resolution CT Scan and Virtual Bronchoscopy for the Detection of Tracheobronchial Malignancies: Materials and Methods

VB (also known as CT bronchography) employs three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of high-resolution helical CT images of the tracheobronchial tree. The contrast between the airway lumen and wall enables the generation of a 3-D anatomic model of tracheobronchial anatomy that provides views similar to those obtained during FB. Furthermore, VB enables the visualization of the tracheobronchial anatomy from multiple angles, thereby facilitating the analysis of bronchial…

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Comparative Evaluation of Super High-Resolution CT Scan and Virtual Bronchoscopy for the Detection of Tracheobronchial Malignancies

Neoplasms involving the respiratory system cause significant morbidity and mortality. Primary lung cancers account for approximately 160,000 deaths annually in the United States. In addition, nearly one third of all patients with neoplasms of nonpulmonary origin develop life-threatening pulmonary metastases. Frequently, patients with primary or metastatic cancers involving the respiratory tract have partial or complete bronchial obstructions secondary to endoluminal tumors or extrinsic compression. Noninvasive,…

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The Effect of Successful Heart Transplant Treatment of Heart Failure on Central Sleep Apnea: Summary

A third of patients with CSA before transplant acquired OSA after transplant. This alteration in apnea type cannot be explained by variations in body weight or dosage of prednisolone between the three patient groups after transplant, nor could we identify upper airway anatomic differences. No patient in the control group acquired OSA despite a similar medication profile. Therefore, we believe it possible that these patients…

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The Effect of Successful Heart Transplant Treatment of Heart Failure on Central Sleep Apnea: Discussion

This study demonstrated two unique observations: first, CHF patients with CSA who undergo heart transplantation may have persistent CSA beyond the peritransplant period (> 6 months) despite normalization of heart function and sympathetic activity. Second, CSA severity is attenuated and the cycle length plus ventilation:apnea ratio are altered in appearance, similar to that seen with idiopathic nonhypercapnic CSA, a condition characterized by normal heart function,…

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The Effect of Successful Heart Transplant Treatment of Heart Failure on Central Sleep Apnea: Results

Between the years of 1999 and 2000, 37 patients with severe CHF underwent heart transplantation workup that included full polysomnography who subsequently received a heart transplant: 16 patients had CSA, 6 patients had OSA, and 15 patients had no SDB (control group). In the CSA group following heart transplantation, one patient was excluded due to allograft dysfunction, one patient due to failure to achieve clinical…

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The Effect of Successful Heart Transplant Treatment of Heart Failure on Central Sleep Apnea: UNE

Sleep was manually staged according to standard criteria. A central apnea was defined as absence of oronasal airflow during sleep for > 10 s associated with absent respiratory effort. A central hypopnea was defined as any reduction in oronasal airflow for > 10 s associated with in phase thoracoabdominal movement and > 2% fall in Spo2. Obstructive apnea was defined as cessation of oronasal airflow…

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The Effect of Successful Heart Transplant Treatment of Heart Failure on Central Sleep Apnea: Materials and Methods

Subjects and Protocol Patients with a diagnosis of ischemic or idiopathic cardiomyopathy, and selected for heart transplantation assessment were included in the study. Patients with congenital, valvular, or restrictive heart disease were excluded. All patients were optimally treated and considered medically stable at the time of heart transplantation assessment. At the time of heart transplantation assessment, patients underwent Tc radionucleotide equilibrium measurement of left ventricular…

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