Posts Tagged ‘edema’

Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Effects of Increased Colloid Osmotic Pressure During Endotoxemia in Rats: Pulmonary edema

Guyton and Lindsey demonstrated that when plasma COP was reduced by half, the threshold hydrostatic pressure necessary for the formation of pulmonary edema fell from 25 to 13 mm Hg. An increase in the hydrostatic pressure above a threshold appears to be a prerequisite for edema formation. When capillary permeability is increased, the transvascular oncotic […]

Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Effects of Increased Colloid Osmotic Pressure During Endotoxemia in Rats: Discussion

Because the primary aim of our experiment was to investigate the effect of high COP on fluid redistribution, we used an equal fluid volume for both the saline solution-treated and the albumin-treated groups. Thus, the present data may not be extrapolated to the clinical situations involving fluid resuscitation. Furthermore, the albumin-treated groups in our study […]

Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Effects of Increased Colloid Osmotic Pressure During Endotoxemia in Rats: Organ Water Content

Ileum and liver water content was not significantly different in any group (saline solution-treated rats: liver, 72.3 ± 1.0%; ileum, 76.2 ± 0.87). In contrast, however, significant differences were observed for the lung, the kidneys, and the heart among the various groups (Fig 7). Lung water content increased significantly in the endotoxemic rats (group III) […]

Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Effects of Increased Colloid Osmotic Pressure During Endotoxemia in Rats: Results

Group II Experiments in this group were completed in 10 of 11 rats, the results showed stable gas-exchange and acid-base balances (Table 2). The infusion of the three single doses of 1 g/kg human albumin was associated with a gradual and significant increase in COP up to a maximum of 58% (Fig 1). In this […]

Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Effects of Increased Colloid Osmotic Pressure During Endotoxemia in Rats: Determination of Organ Water Content

After the last data collection (at 6 h), all rats were killed with IV administration of pentobarbital, following which the kidneys, lung, heart, liver, and a 15-cm section of the ileum in each rat were quickly removed. Tissues were weighed and then placed in an oven at 60°C for slow drying for > 5 days. […]

Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Effects of Increased Colloid Osmotic Pressure During Endotoxemia in Rats:

This dose of heparin also prevents blood coagulation in samples used for gas-exchange analyses or COP determination. However, to minimize the possible interaction of heparin with the endotoxin, we used a reduced dose of 100 U/kg/2 h IV. Assuming that the presence of heparin can block the activity of endotoxin, it may then equally affect […]

Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Effects of Increased Colloid Osmotic Pressure During Endotoxemia in Rats: Materials and Methods

Anesthesia, Surgery, and Fluid, Balance The experimental protocol for this study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Miami Children’s Hospital, Miami, FL. Young albino Sprague-Dawley rats (weight range, 250 to 350 g) were anesthetized with 50 mg/kg pentobarbital intraperitoneally. In the supine position, a tracheostomy was performed and an […]

Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Effects of Increased Colloid Osmotic Pressure During Endotoxemia in Rats:

According to Starling principles, the plasma COP is one of the major factors affecting fluid flux across the capillaries. However, the role of COP in modulating the fluid flux across the capillary membrane in critically ill patients is controversial. Two reviews’ concluded that albumin-treated patients have a 4 to 6% excess mortality rate compared to […]

Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Effects of Increased Colloid Osmotic Pressure During Endotoxemia in Rats

Colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is generated across membranes that are permeable to water and low-molecular-weight substances but that are impermeable to large molecular compounds, such as plasma proteins. Fluid administration is a fundamental part of resuscitation therapy, which is performed by using either crystalloid or colloid solutions. Crystalloid solutions, such as Ringer’s lactate solutions and […]

Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Effects of Increased Colloid Osmotic Pressure During Endotoxemia in Rats: Extrapulmonary Effects of COP

Hetastarch and pentastarch infusion in hypopro-teinemic sheep, unlike our endotoxemic albumin-treated rats, have produced a limited transvascular fluid filtration in the lung and soft tissue compared to crystalloid infusion. This, however, was explained by the augmentation of plasma COP and by the plasma-to-lymph oncotic pressure gradient, where capillary integrity was maintained. Conflicting reports of the […]

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